Is it doable to say that humanity is essentially the most mysterious creature that requires examine and investigation? And is the historical past of mankind, which 1000’s, slightly tens of 1000’s and extra of researchers, historians, writers, writers and others, have tried to delve into, have they arrive to definitive information about it, or have they give you titles and examples that humanity, within the close to and much future, can work on so as to keep away from calamities? And the good catastrophes that befell their earlier counterparts, in the event that they persevered within the earlier warlike method, and with instruments which might be extra lethal and extra complete than immeasurably, and which result in the destruction of the human race, and the delivery of remnants of unknown human teams?
If we wished to enumerate the written collection meant to study human historical past, from the books of Yuval Noah Harari, David Graeber, and Talandier, to the collection issued by UNESCO, Laval College, David Ygro and plenty of others, we might not have the ability to depend them and decide their contents.
In the identical context, a brand new e book by a German historian and archaeologist known as Hermann Bartzinger (1959) entitled “The Sons of Prometheus, Historical past of Humanity Earlier than the Invention of Writing” was just lately printed. It was translated into Arabic by Elias Hajouj, and it was printed and printed by Dar Kalima of the Abu Dhabi Middle for the Arabic Language.
A brief encyclopedia of an extended historical past
The e book, which is ready as a extremely abridged encyclopedia, consists of 5 sections, simulating the key levels that humanity has handed by way of, supported by the summaries of 546 scientific references overlaying all themes of the analysis encyclopedia, corresponding to research coping with the event of the human mind and its cultural penalties, and the good leap made by humanity in direction of cultural modernity, And the shift from navy battle to the emergence of the early metropolis within the Center East, and different axes.
The very first thing that’s good for us to start out speaking concerning the e book and its contents, is the issue that the author presents in his introduction to the impact that whether it is right to think about the historical past of mankind begins with the emergence of writing with out others, it will be thought of unfair and pretentious, as a result of the historical past of mankind, in response to him, which took what was not Lower than seven million years in the past, it’s nothing however levels that humanity was going by way of, recording qualitative progress after one other, bringing it nearer to essentially the most full mannequin that it grew to become earlier than writing, and through which it acquired excessive cultural abilities, corresponding to dwelling engineering, meals provision, agricultural work, and the worship of gods. engraving and drawings, synthesising symbols and shapes, making them a cloth for circulation amongst a individuals particularly, and maybe forming a spoken language that has not but had the potential for being fashioned into letters and a whole language.
Within the first stage, which the author calls “the event of the human mind and its cultural penalties”, through which he presents an important theories and up to date archaeological discoveries that indicated that the formation of the human cranium in people handed by way of levels, from the expert man (by looking and slicing recreation), to the erect man, humanity has handed. A number of million years, throughout which man was capable of develop his abilities, which we referred to, and invented for himself instruments extracted from wooden supplies that assure his protection and enhance the standard of his life, housing, and meals. Her final picture is comparatively near her picture throughout his transformation into the “considering man”, the period through which humanity ended.
So, the author Bartzinger tells, primarily based on the newest research and analysis findings in anthropology, archaeology, historical past, anatomy, and others, how extreme climatic adjustments had been a decisive issue within the enlargement of human teams, particularly Homo erectus, in direction of Europe and China, and the way Neanderthals , essentially the most distinguished determine within the period of Homo erectus, for 300 thousand years (300,000) years in the past, was capable of adapt to the climates of the Ice Age, and was capable of construct the primary hut-like dwellings, and stitch easy leather-based garments, along with with the ability to make instruments for looking prey from small mammals, elephants, mammoths, and birds and others.
As well as, drawings belonging to Neanderthals, particularly within the Peche de Lazy cave, southern France, revealed that this man knew using dyes, and painted with them the animals that he hunted or noticed in his dwelling surroundings. It was not shocking, within the view of the author and researcher Bartzinger, that this individual reached a level of occupied with summary points, such because the dilemma of life and dying, and that he spoke and created programs of symbols of his personal, that are nonetheless unknown till now. On this case, it was not shocking that he started constructing impartial tombs, after they had been positioned underneath the dwellings, and that he attributed superior qualities to the lifeless.
As for the second stage, which was represented by man’s nice leap to cultural modernity, it witnessed the emergence of Homo sapiens or trendy man, and its motion from Africa, about 195,000 years in the past, and its subsequent unfold within the neighborhood of the Center East and an extension to Asia. There isn’t a doubt that this stage was very fertile from a cultural and social perspective, because it witnessed the emergence of inscriptions and statues that embody human consciousness of gender, energy, and geometric shapes. The work left within the caves (Lascaux, for instance) had been crammed with colourful drawings of essentially the most current animals within the lives of their painters, and witnessed the emergence of arts, in a time span of practically 30,000 years, and that is supported by current discoveries of a flute manufactured from animal bones and hole wooden later.
Alternatively, the third stage, which the author titled “From the Camp to the Early Metropolis within the Center East”, which extends from the tenth millennium BC to earlier than the Egyptian civilization, is taken into account essential in bringing about vital transformations within the lives of peoples and the emergence of civilizations within the Mediterranean Basin. The author hyperlinks, primarily based on research within the place, between the prevalence of climatic reversals represented by a steady flood of rain and a state of excessive humidity, and the emergence of the concept of town adjoining to the river, or to an inexhaustible supply of water, and the consolidation of its pillars, each within the Fertile Crescent with a dominant agricultural character, and in Anatolian settlements, or within the Nile Valley. That is what, in his opinion, led to the emergence of civilizations in every of those websites, which signifies that types of mental and creative expressions, worship and beliefs particular to every of those civilizations noticed the sunshine, along with the emergence of supplies for formation and formation corresponding to pottery with which figures are made, statues, adornment instruments, and meals instruments , souvenirs and extra.
This part accommodates associated articles, positioned within the Associated Nodes subject.
Nevertheless, the remaining two phases, that are respectively entitled: the Nile Valley earlier than the traditional Egyptian civilization, and the obstructive developments south of the desert, had been foundational precursors to the emergence of the traditional Egyptian civilization, on 4 main pillars: agriculture and its growth, the care and preservation of its crops, the care of marine fishing and the development of its means, worship and associated issues. By it and by those that set up hierarchies, rituals and rituals for it, and a ruler able to managing the affairs of settlers and residents of cities and countryside alike.
Undoubtedly, the attentive reader will finally understand that the peoples and civilizations of humanity, going of their authenticity and historical historical past for tens of 1000’s of years, actually had symbolic programs and (oral) speech that allowed them to speak amongst their members, and what they lacked had been solely two thousand or much less. From the years to extract its thinkers languages from their frequent phrases.
However within the e book there are innumerable information about peoples, populations and civilizations, who lived, skilled, hunted, innovated, and waited for a very long time till man reached his ultimate maturity, so can we add extra of it?